Researchers knowingly violated ethical boundaries when they intentionally infected Guatamalan prisoners, mental health patients, and prostitutes with sexually transmitted diseases in a 1940s research project, a presidential commission concluded yesterday. When the harrowing experiments came to light (see ‘A shocking discovery’), President Barack Obama charged the President’s Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues with investigating the matter. After picking through 125,000 pages of historical documents, the committee determined that the experiments were unethical even by the prevailing norms of the era, and that those who conducted the research actively sought to keep experiments out of the public eye.
It was also no accident that the research was performed in Guatemala, argued Amy Gutmann, chairwoman of the commission and president of the University of Pennsylvania. “Some of the people who were involved in this experiment explicitly said, ‘We could not do this in our own country’,” she said. “It was a foreign population that was seen as ethnically, racially, nationally different.”
“The only way you could continue doing this is to think of what you were working on as material as opposed to human subjects,” Gutmann added.
The work was also in clear opposition to ethical standards of the time, argued Nelson Michael, director of the US Military HIV Research Program. “I’m not aware of any standards that would have said, ‘it’s ok to go offshore to do this kind of research’,” he said. “They did it because they found a doorway that they found darkened and they went through it.”
Sexually transmitted diseases, including gonorrhea and syphilis, were among the biggest threats to public health at the time. It was estimated that 20% of the people living in psychiatric institutions were there because of the neurological effects of advanced syphilis. The researchers in the Guatemalan study, which included John Cutler, an architect of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments, were looking for a way to prevent the spread of such diseases. But despite that sense of urgency, the studies carried out in Guatemala were poorly designed, poorly executed, and entirely unethical, the commission concluded.
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I was smoking hookah outside, i looked straight at my mom and told her “i’m going to learn how to surf”…she asked , with a blank expression “what does that mean, surrrfing?”. I told her; she took it well. Now…I just have to figure out how to arrange it from the middle of hell-zone Texas….
Light waves are transverse waves because the waveform changes perpendicular to the relative motion. It’s important to note that light waves are electromagnetic waves, which are produced by the vibration of charged particles. Thus, the electric field and magnetic field are changing perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. Light has electromagnetic energy and can travel through a vaccum (empty space/outer space)!
But light is crazy, we can’t touch, hear, or feel it. We see light as it is filtered through the atmosphere and reflected off objects. Light is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum and all the waves in this spectrum share certain properties, I always see it referred to as ‘visible’. All forms of electromagnetic energy, including light, are waves. And as waves they all have frequency. Frequency is the number of waves that pass a certain point in seconds. The frequency depends on the size of the wave. So the longer the wavelength, the smaller the frequency. High frequency to low frequency: GXUvisibleIMR = Gamma, X-ray, UV, Visible, Infrared, Microwaves, and Radiowaves. So uhm…basically…I like the colors I see :)
How I see them? Well we all see visible light: ROYGBIV. Each color of the rainbow corresponds to a different wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum. From highest wavelength to lowest wavelength: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, Thus, violet has the highest frequency. When light is shown through a prism, the white light is broken apart into the colors of the rainbow: ROYGBIV. Like a prism, the water vapor in the atmosphere breaks apart wavelengths, creating a rainbow. The sun is a natural source for the visible light waves and our eyes see the reflection of this sunlight off the objects around us. The color of an object we see is the color of light reflected. All other colors are absorbed. Important to remember, light has properties particles and waves! But…let’s not get into the particle properties right now…
Light has a dual nature and science is amazing!
DONE! Scribe interview round one went smoothly….I think. Believe it or not, I’ve been awake since 5am waiting for my 10:30am Skype interview. In 3-7 business days I find out if i’m eligible for the position. The two locations I might get to work at are either a children’s hospital or a urology center, I chose them because they’re closest to my house. I’ve got my fingers crossed. I’m so anxious. Must know NOWWW!!
Note: I’m one of the most inpatient people Ever. I like getting everything done on my own. I hate waiting on people. And, I’m a horrible person in group projects. Don’t Ever pick me.
Skype interview tomorrow! I’m such a nerd, I made a long list of possible questions and answers. I want this job really badly. I would love the chance to shadow a physician, see what it’s really like for them. I’m ready for a fast-pace, stressful environment. Just the contrast to what life has been lately. Not that i’m complaining, I love the freedom of little responsibility. But, i’m ready to have more purpose in my life. As we say in Texas, sometimes you just gotta take the bull by the horns! I finally feel like I know what I want and with this scribe job, I’m one step closer to it.
- Plainview: Are you an angry man, Henry?
- Henry Brands: About what?
- Plainview: Are you envious? Do you get envious?
- Henry Brands: I don't think so. No.
- Plainview: I have a competition in me. I want no one else to succeed. I hate most people.
- Henry Brands: That part of me is gone... working and not succeeding- all my failures has left me... I just don't... care.
- Plainview: Well, if it's in me, it's in you. There are times when I look at people and I see nothing worth liking. I want to earn enough money that I can get away from everyone.